Carlisle Chang: the artist

Carlisle Chang: A landmark artist, Chang designed bands unrivalled for the breadth of their themes and meticulousness of their execution

Carlisle Chang in the 1980s. Photograph by Bruce PaddingtonChang, portraying a gold fish in China the Forbidden City (1967). Photograph by Noel NortonChina, the Forbidden City. This well-known photograph was used on a postage stamp in 1967. Photograph by Noel NortonChina, the Forbiden City on Frederick Street. Photograph by Noel NortonElsie Lee Heung, wife of bandleader Stephen Lee Heung, in China, the Forbidden City. Photograph by Noel Norton

Carlisle Chang, 1921–2001

“Carlisle Chang is in the realm of myth . . . His work — like himself — has a sense of timelessness, spanning perhaps the most important 50 years of art history in this country.”
— Mark Pereira, art dealer

In a profile of Carlisle Chang published in Caribbean Beat in 1998, writer
Judy Raymond called him the father of Trinidadian art. In purely practical
terms, he was the first Trinidadian artist to actually earn a living solely
from his art, paving the way for two generations of professional artists.
Over his 60-year career, he was a painter (his lost mural The Inherent
Nobility of Man
was called “possibly the most important work of art
in the Caribbean” by critic Geoffrey MacLean), a sculptor, a designer of
theatre sets and costumes, a photographer, a ceramicist, an interior designer,
a gallery owner, and a beloved teacher. It’s safe to say that he was the
most complete person-of-the-arts to emerge in Trinidad in the 20th century.
But many ordinary people who have never seen his work in a museum remember
him as the designer of some of the most enthralling Carnival bands ever to
cross the stage at the Savannah.

Chang was born in 1921 in San Juan, which today is almost a suburb of Port
of Spain, but was then a quiet country town without electricity. His father
was a migrant from China, his mother was born in British Guiana of Chinese
stock, but Chang grew up in an ethnically diverse community, “rich with
the culture of Hindus and Muslims, Ibo, Ashanti, and Yoruba, Spanish mestizo,
French patois-speaking creoles, and, of course Chinese”, as he wrote. He
always insisted that his true roots were in this cultural mix, declaring
himself “fed up with this Chinese thing”, and his art grew out of his love
for the society that produced him.

One of Chang’s earliest artistic experiences was, appropriately,
connected with Carnival. At the age of seven he helped his sister Beryl
sew a dragon costume for a neighbour, and worked also on the head of scarlet
papier mâché. His first formal training came from artists
like Sybil Atteck and Amy Leong Pang, members of the seminal Society of Independents.
As a young man he learned photography from a cousin, then studied in New
York, London, and Italy on a series of scholarships. The style he developed
was a thoroughly indigenous fusion of the traditions of Europe with Trinidad’s
folk art, coloured always by his own eclecticism. According to Peter Minshall,
“Chang was among the first to understand that this place is an incredible
laboratory of the New World, an orchid house where incredible hybrids need
to be nurtured.”

Chang was never a bandleader, unlike the other designers profiled in these
pages. Instead, from 1964 to 1975 he designed an astonishing series of bands
for Stephen Lee Heung (who had a good eye for talent — it was at his commission
that Peter Minshall designed his first band). Chang’s themes reflected his
knowledge of the world’s artistic traditions — his first presentation was
Japan, Land of the Kabuki, and he went on to produce bands based
on ancient Crete, the civilisations of Central America, and Russian and
Arabic folk tales.

Best remembered is 1967’s China, the Forbidden City
— a shimmering vision of Peking overflowing with birds, temples, gardens,
and pavilions, in which Chang himself portrayed a goldfish with an enormous
tail flowing in the breeze, and for which he won his first band of the year
title. But closest to his artistic vision was the final band he designed
in 1975, We Kind Ah People, a celebration of the diverse cultural
and ethnic streams that combine in the people of Trinidad and Tobago. Meticulous
in detail, breathtaking as an abstract painting as the masqueraders danced
past the Grand Stand, We Kind Ah People showcased Chang’s skill at
weaving multiple influences into one authentic whole.

From the late 70s, for nearly 20 years, it seemed that Chang’s career had
ended. Disillusioned by what he felt was an absence of appreciation, he
stopped painting altogether until a revival of public and critical interest
in the mid-90s reinvigorated him. But Carnival had already benefited from
the deep artistic sophistication he had brought to his design, and his work
strongly influenced younger designers like Minshall.

Carlisle Chang died in 2001, shortly after his 80th birthday. A humble
and unassuming man, he might have been embarrassed by his obituary accolades.
Judy Raymond, writing of his physically ephemeral yet creatively indelible
contribution to Carnival design, noted that “It was Chang who, drawing on
all his Trinidadian heritage, from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas,
transformed a creole craft into an art admired by the world.”

Carlisle Chang: Band of the Year Titles

1967    China, the Forbidden City (bandleader, Stephen Lee
Heung)
1975    We Kind Ah People (bandleader, Stephen Lee Heung)